The USGS is developing research-quality, applications-ready, Level-2 and Level-3 science data products derived from Landsat Level-1 data, which can be used to monitor, assess, and project how changes in land use, land cover, and land condition affect people and nature.
These Level-2 products include Surface Reflectance -SR (the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from Earth's surface to the Landsat sensor) and Surface Temperature -ST (a measure of how much heat is radiated from Earth's surface) are time-series observational data of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to record effects of climate change.
Surface Reflectance and Surface Temperature data serve as input to Level-3 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and represent specific geophysical and biophysical properties of the land surface. The following ECVs are in development:
Maps of land cover and land cover change
Like Level-2 data, ECVs are parameters derived from systematic long-term measurements collected by satellite and aircraft platforms as well as in situ observational networks.
Landsat image mosaics over the conterminous United States created using Landsat 8 Level-1 data (left) and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data (right). Images were created in December 2014.
Surface Temperature, and Level-3 Burned Area, Dynamic Surface Water Extent, and Snow Covered Area (SCA) products will become available as they complete development.
Landsat Science Data Products Metadata contain significant amounts of information that can be used to locate specific data files in the archive inventory, and inform users of certain data product characteristics. The metadata files may vary based on which interface is being used to order the product.
Lansdat Surface Reflectance Quality Assessment (QA) bands provide users an indication of whether the integrity of Surface Reflectance data have been affected by instrument artifacts, production software updates, or atmospheric conditions.
Processing requests for Surface Reflectance and Surface Reflectance-derived spectral indices can be submitted at no charge. The Landsat Science Data Products Access page provides information on the ordering interfaces.
Visit the Landsat Science Data Products News Archive or the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On-demand interface for updates to Landsat science data products.